May the Source be with You: an Annotated Works Cited

A Day in the Life of Detention. (n.d.). Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://www.clallam.net/juvenileservices/dayindetention.html

ACLU. (n.d.). School-To-Prison Pipeline: Charts, Data in Rhode Island. Retrieved January 19, 2017, from http://riaclu.org/issues/issue/the-school-to-prison-pipeline-charts-and-conclusions/

Admin, B. (2010, November 02). In Federal Sentencing, Age Begins to Matter. Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://crimeinthesuites.com/in-federal-sentencing-age-begins-to-matter/

Administrator, E. (2015, March 27). Attorney Directory. Retrieved January 18, 2017, from http://www.lawyershop.com/practice-areas/criminal-law/juvenile-law/crimes

Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York: New Press.

This book describes how mass incarceration has reinstated a racial caste system in the U.S. It brings up many different elements, including the school prison pipeline, that contribute to these “new Jim Crow laws”. It is very relevant because it brings up many different facets of the pipeline and offers reasons to why this is happening in America. This source was useful because of how it denotes the conditions of the criminal justice system and described many different contributing factors of mass incarceration.

American Psychological Association.(2006). Are zero tolerance policies effective in the schools? An evidentiary review and recommendations. Washington DC: APA.

Beale, C. (2014, November 19). Are black Americans incarcerated more than whites because ` commit more crimes or because the system discriminates against them. Retrieved January 04, 2017, from  www.quora.com/Are-black-Americans-incarcerated-more-than-whites-because-they-commit-more crimes-or-because-the-system-discriminates-against-them

This article compares the data disparity between Whites and Blacks in jail. It references Stop and Frisk, arbitrary “offesnse” that Black people are arrested for, and simply asks an important question: “Why do black people get thrown in jail more than other people?”. It was relevant because there is a huge disparity in America in arrests based on race; it is what fuels the prison industrial complex. This article was helpful for collecting thoughts and motivation, but the article itself was not so refutable. 

Black Americans incarcerated five times more than white people – report. (2017). Retrieved January 05, 2017, from www.theguardian.com/us-news/2016/jun/18/mass-incarceration-blacks-americans-higher-rates-disparities-report

Brown, P. L (2013, April 3) “Opening Up, Students Transform a Vicious Circle”, New York Times.

California Department of Education. (2016, May 17). State Schools Chief Tom Torlakson Reports New Record High School Graduation Rate and Sixth Consecutive Year of an Increase. Retrieved January 23, 2017, from http://www.cde.ca.gov/nr/ne/yr16/yr16rel38.asp

Challenging the School to Prison Pipeline. (n.d.). Retrieved January 19, 2017, from http://www.suspensionstories.com/

This video was made by students in Philadelphia who are tired of the push of the school to prison pipeline. They gave quips about some of the effects and tribulations it offers. This source was relevant because it gives voices to the students affected by the pipeline, a facet that is, in my opinion, often overlooked. It was very helpful because they gave first hand accounts of the pipeline.

Cohort Outcome Data for the Class of 2014-15. (n.d.). Retrieved January 23, 2017, from http://dq.cde.ca.gov/dataquest/cohortrates/GradRates.aspx?cds=00000000000000&TheYear=2014-15&Agg=T&Topic=Graduates&RC=State&SubGroup=Ethnic%2FRacial

Doing Time: John’s Diary. (2012, March 13). Retrieved January 19, 2017, from http://www.radiodiaries.org/doing-time-johns-diary/

This podcast is of a juvenile inmate, John Mills who wanted to be a police officer growing up but now, at 17 years old, is serving seven to nine years. Stories of his robberies, how prison is secured, and the things to do while in Prison. It was helpful hearing first hand stories of the youth in lock up.

Federal Bureau of Prisons (2016). (n.d.). Retrieved January 11, 2017, from https://www.bop.gov/about/statistics/statistics_inmate_race.jsp

Federal Law on Guns in Schools. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2017, from http://smartgunlaws.org/gun-laws/federal-law/firearms-in-public-places/guns-in-schools/

Gardner, J. (2016, December 21). School-to-Prison Pipeline Complete — New Law Makes   Schoolyard Fights a Felony. Retrieved January 12, 2017, from http://thefreethoughtproject.com/school-fights-felony-prison-pipeline/

Going Home: Cristel’s Diary. (2012, March 13). Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://www.radiodiaries.org/going-home-cristels-diary/

This podcast is a recording of Juvenile inmate, Cristel’s, story about her three years behind bars. She was arrested at 15 years old while pregnant. Sentenced to three and a half years in prison for cutting up a girl’s face with a razor blade. While she was in prison, she was taken to the hospital, just for the amount of time it would take to give birth and then brought back in handcuffs. She in now called the poster child for rehabilitation because she really changed and learned how to control her anger over her time in juvie. This source was interesting and helpful to hear how the juvenile justice system affects kids.

Gomez, A. (2015, August 25). Study Finds Higher Expulsion Rates Black Students South. Retrieved January 03, 2017, from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/study-finds-higher-expulsion-rates-black-students-south/

This article talked about statistics dealing with suspension rates. For example, in the 2011\2012 school year 1.2 million black students were suspended from public schools most of these suspensions took place at the graduate school of education’s at the the university of Pennsylvania. Suspension and expulsion rates for blacks happened in other states too such as Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky ,Louisiana (mainly the south) Virginia / west Virginia. This is relevant because suspensions add to the time kids are out of class, which directly influences the pipeline. this source was helpful because it gae many facts and a lot of data that was refutable.

Guo, J. (2016, February 26). America has locked up so many black people it has warped our sense of reality. Retrieved January 06, 2016, from http://www.civilfreedoms.org/?p=21030

This site talks about and shows how much likely the African American male community is more likely to go to jail than their White counterpart. It talks about the disparity of job availability for Black men and former “inmates”. This is relevant because in the school to prison pipeline, students of color are targeted and within the criminal justice system, Black men are vast over-represented. This source was helpful in that it gave a lot of data and was helpful for contextualizeing the facts.

Harris, K. D. (2014). Juvenile Justice in California. Retrieved January 23, 2017, from https://oag.ca.gov/sites/all/files/agweb/pdfs/cjsc/publications/misc/jj14/preface.pdf

Heitzeg, N. A. (2009). Criminalizing Education: Zero Tolerance Policies, Police in the Hallways, and the School to Prison Pipeline. St. Paul, Minnesota: St. Catherine University.

This article described and detailed the school to prison pipeline and how zero-tolerance policies have affected it. It calls attention to the media portrayal of youth of color and the prison industrial complex. It is extremely relevant in that it gives a good overview of the pipeline while going into minute detail. It was extremely useful to me because of its use of statistics.

Hogg, D. (2014, February-October). Personal communications.

Danny (age 15-17 at the time) has been in and out of jail his entire life. In his letters he is writing his friend, Amber Lee, from first the Alameda County Juvenile Detention Center, then a private non-profit residential treatment facility: George Junior Republic in Grove City, PA.

Hoskins, M. W. (2008, May 14). Teens share stories about juvenile justice experience . Retrieved January 20, 2017, from Teens share stories about juvenile justice experience. (n.d.). Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://www.theindianalawyer.com/teens-share-stories-about-juvenile-justice-experience/PARAMS/article/24023

How testing feeds the school-to-prison pipeline. Retrieved January 13, 2017, from http://www.fairtest.org/how-testing-feeds-schooltoprison-pipeline

Indicators of School Crime and Safety, 1998 / 98251 / Table A1Percentage of public schools reporting that they have a zero tolerance policy for various specified student offenses, by selected school characteristics: 199697. (n.d.). Retrieved January 19, 2017, from https://nces.ed.gov/pubs98/safety/taba1.asp

This article brings attention the The Elementary and Secondary Education Act and the No Child Left Behind Act. It gives examples of definitions, requirements of the acts, and criticisms of the legislation. It’s relevance derives from the acts contributing to the pipeline themselves. It was helpful in my research because it gave me easily accessible, detailed information of complicated legislation that pertains to my topic.

Juvenile Law Center. (n.d.). Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://jlc.org/about-us/what-we-do/stories

This source presents the stories of ten incarcerated youth, and their experience in jail, and what they did to get there. The quality of this source is okay, because it gives different situations. However, it does not go into great detail on each situation. It is useful for figuring out what kind of narrative I want to write, but not for the specific details of each narrative.

Kauffman, E. (n.d.). The Worst. Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://nation.time.com/2012/12/11/the-worst-school-to-prison-pipeline-was-it-in-mississippi/

Matthew and the Judge: Juvenile Court Diary. (2015, June 04). Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://www.radiodiaries.org/matthew-and-the-judge-juvenile-court-diary/

This podcast is the diary of both Matthew, a juvenile inmate, and Judge Jeremiah, the one who convicted and released him. Arrested at 13 years old for a couple months and then after that came back to juvie about three times. Matthew tells his story of how it’s been in prison each time and getting released. Judge Jeremiah tells his side of the story. You hear how he decides to release him. You hear Matthews talk to his school social worker. The judge let him out seven months early to training school. Then Matthew returned to court because he had immediately returned to selling drugs. He was released at 18 years old. They day before his 19th birthday he was shot and killed by another kid in his neighborhood. This podcast was useful because it showed a juvenile’s experience through the criminal justice system many times, however, it was not directly related to the STPP.

Pacific Juvenile Defender Center. (2016, January). Juveniles Tried in Adult Court in California. Retrieved January 23, 2017, from http://www.pjdc.org/wp/dnld.php?file=wp-content/uploads/2009/07/California-Juveniles-in-Adult-Court-UPDATED-January-2016.doc

Racial Disparity. (n.d.). Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://www.sentencingproject.org/issues/racial-disparity/

Rovner, J. (2016, April 01). Racial Disparities in Youth Commitments and Arrests Retrieved January 06, 2017, from http://www.sentencingproject.org/publications/racial-disparities-in-youth-commitments-and-arrests/ 

This article disscusses the fact that nationwide, African American juveniles are more than four times as likely to be committed to secure placements than White juveniles. It talks about the disparity in arrests based on race and how African Americans have been treated along the criminal justice system. This is relevant because of the direct links to the police, and this racial profiling conducted by them, and the school system, that are in fact detrimental to the education and life track of these youth. This source was helpful for finding data and facts about the disparities and for general inspiration/motivation for why this struggle is so real and interconnected.

Seamons, K. (2016, March 16). He Was the Youngest American Sentenced to Life Without Parole. But He Got Out. Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://m.newser.com/story/222135/sentenced-to-life-at-14-what-he-did-on-1st-day-out.html

Serving 9 to 5: Correctional Officers’ Diary. (2012, March 13). Retrieved January 17, 2017, from http://www.radiodiaries.org/serving-9-to-5-correctional-officers-diary/

Silverstein, K. (1997, June). America’s private gulag. Prison Legal News

This article explains and delineates the prison industrial complex and the growth of the Corrections Corporation of America. It goes in depth on its affect on America and how it fuels our economy. It is relevant in that it gives information on a crucial part of the school to prison pipeline: the prisons. It was helpful to me for understanding a complicated system in which our nation’s money is tied up in.

Sojoyner, D. M. (2013). Black Radicals Make for Bad Citizens: Undoing the Myth of the School to Prison Pipeline. Berkeley Review of Education, 4(2), 241-263.

This article challenges the school to prison pipeline for ignoring the historical context and anti-Blackness that underlies every American system. It is relevant because of how it brings up a side of the pipeline that is not often spoken about. This source was helpful to me for understanding the pipeline and the way this country operates better.

Stoebig, K., & Vega, M. M. C. (2016, May 26). How “Zero-Tolerance” school discipline policies hurt African-American kids. Retrieved January 13, 2017, from http://fusion.net/story/306753/school-prison-pipeline/

[TED]. (2007, March 23). Anna Deavere Smith: Four American characters. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=KR8SwPmCFd4

The Drug War, Mass Incarceration and Race (English/Spanish). (2016, February 10). Retrieved January 12, 2017, from http://www.drugpolicy.org/resource/drug-war-mass-incarceration-and-race

[THIRTEEN]. (2015, June 11). Anna Deavere Smith on “School to Prison Pipeline”. [Video File]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7PTPZBFHBf0

Timmons, S. and Timmons, M. (2016, December). Personal communication.

Toppo, G. (2016, June 07). Black students nearly 4x as likely to be suspended. Retrieved January 03, 2017, from http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/2016/06/07/blackstudents-nearly-4x-likely-suspended

U.S. Department of Education Office for Civil Rights. (2014, March). CIVIL RIGHTS DATA COLLECTION Data Snapshot: School Discipline. Retrieved January 23, 2017, from http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/rulesforengagement/CRDC%20School%20Discipline%20Snapshot.pdf

Williams, J. (2017, January 08). White men vs black men prison statistics 2016 : why are more African Americans males incarcerated ? Retrieved October 05, 2016, from http://www.Ibtimes.com/white-men-vs-black-men-prison-statistic-2016-why are -more-african-american-males-2426793

Witt, H. (2007, September 5). School Discipline Tougher on African Americans”. Chicago Tribune.

May the Source Be With You

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